Open RAN (O-RAN)

Open RAN Overview

Open RAN is a recent trend in the telecommunications market (especially in the 5G area), aiming at the realization of the following key objectives:

  • splitting of a base station into several functional components, including central unit (CU), distributed unit (DU), and a remote unit (RU);
  • opening interfaces to enable interoperability (especially Open Fronthaul);
  • disaggregating software from hardware in the RAN domain;
  • introducing advanced automation into the RAN system by means of an abstracted entity to manage the radio networks, i.e. RAN Intelligent Controller (RIC) which serves as a platform for xApps (optimization applications in the RAN domain) and rApps (optimization applications in the management plane) using AI/ML.

Rimedo Labs contributes to the Open RAN topic in the following ways:

  • xApp/rApp developments (RRM/SON algorithms design) – see our products below (we are technology partners of VMware and Juniper Networks);
  • live and pre-recorded training delivery – see the agenda of O-RAN System Training here;
  • active contribution to SD-RAN and SMaRT-5G project and as an ONF Member – read more here: Rimedo Labs to Integrate and Open Source TS xApp with ONF’s SD-RAN;
  • active contribution to Open RAN standardization as an O-RAN ALLIANCE member – focusing on Use Cases, Near-RT RIC, Non-RT RIC, xApps, rApps and energy saving;
  • delivering free and paid webinars – watch some on our youtube channel;
  • content production in the form of blogs and whitepapers.


Below you can find out about our services, products, and technical content related to Open RAN, which you can read, watch and download.

Note: you may find various terms related to Open RAN in the literature. „Open RAN” is used to refer to the overall movement of opening up the RAN by disaggregating hardware and software and creating open interfaces between them. The term „OpenRAN” is used by Telecom Infra Project. „O-RAN” with a hyphen is used by the O-RAN Alliance. „ORAN” is typically just used as a hashtag.

O-RAN Services

Our services in the Open RAN area include:

  • xApp and rApp development for the RAN Intelligent Controller (RIC)
  • Live technical courses delivery: 3-day „O-RAN System Training with hands-on”, 2-day „O-RAN System Training”, and 1-day „5G and Open RAN”
  • Pre-recorded on-line courses: „O-RAN System Training”, „O-RAN Hands-on Training”
  • Live webinars (free and paid)
  • Dedicated simulations and algorithm design
  • Whitepapers and technical articles delivery

Why Us?

  • we are a member of Open Networking Foundation’s (ONF) SD-RAN project developing xApps for SD-RAN’s RIC and contributing to SMaRT-5G project
  • we are a member of O-RAN ALLIANCE focusing on use cases, xApps, rApps, Near-RT RIC and Non-RT RIC
  • we take part in O-RAN Global PlugFests to integrate our solutions with other vendors and are also an associated member of i14y Lab
  • we have won the first rAppathon by VMware and Intel with our TS-xApp
  • we are partnering with the leading commercial RIC providers including VMware and Juniper Networks
  • our team members have strong industry experience gathered when working for R&D departments of equipment manufacturers
  • active participation of the team members in 30+ national and global research projects in the radiocommunication area
  • most of the technical staff has Ph.D. degree with strong background in Radio Resource Management (RRM) algorithms design

O-RAN Products

Below you can find details about our O-RAN software development. The product portfolio covers xApps for the Near-RT RIC and rApps for the Non-RT RIC.

Open RAN xApp Demonstrator

The tool simulates the behavior of a heterogeneous Open RAN network with macro and small cells and users with various services. The implementation is generic, i.e. it intentionally does not include any of the existing platforms for RIC simulation. The goal is to illustrate the benefits of xApp modularity supported by defined interfaces. The demonstrator allows experimenting with the network parameters, service settings, xApps, and xApp policies.

Intelligent Traffic Steering enabled by Rimedo xApp and VMware RIC

Rimedo Labs Policy-controlled xApp, powered by VMware Distributed RIC, helps CSPs by providing service-based and load-balancing-focused traffic steering. Using internal intelligence and following the policies specified via the A1 interface, the Rimedo Labs xApp can simultaneously distribute the load between network nodes and offload specific traffic to dedicated cells (e.g., some cells may have caching enabled for video services, or lower latency or larger buffers).

Energy Saving rApp: RF Channel Reconfiguration – Technical Specification

Taking into account the variations in the traffic load, the number of RF channels can be adjusted by the Energy Saving rApp (ES-rApp) to provide ES gains while satisfying users’ QoS demands. ES-rApp enables an intelligent selection of RF channels to maximize energy efficiency. The rApp collects the traffic load per beam, the current power consumption, and the configuration of the antenna panel (e.g. 64, 32, or 16 antennas). Based on the ML model decision, the proper number of antenna elements is selected.

Beam Mobility Management xApp – Technical Specification

For intelligent and flexible beam management in M-MIMO networks, Rimedo Labs propose a Beam Mobility Management xApp (BMM-xApp). It can be used by the Mobile Network Operator (MNO) to optimize beam management, especially for high-speed users. The optimization goal can be adjusted to the current MNO’s needs, e.g., maximization of RSRP, or minimization of several beam reselections while preventing beam failures.

Traffic Steering xApp – Technical Specification

For the purpose of intelligent and flexible user-to-cell association, Rimedo Labs propose a Traffic Steering xApp (TS-xApp). The xApp intelligently controls the cell preferences, and mobile handovers, related to individual users, users within the same QoS Flows, or users being associated with a given network slice, in order to improve utilization of radio resources within the network and meet users’ QoS demands. TS-xApp is integrated with ONF and VMware’s RIC.

QoS-based Resource Allocator xApp – Technical Specification

For the purpose of dynamic allocation of radio resources Rimedo Labs propose a QoS-based Resource Allocator xApp (QRA-xApp). The xApp dynamically controls the quota of Physical Resource Blocks (PRBs) that should be allocated to the different network slices, to meet the SLA requirements and in the same time to adjust them depending on the temporary traffic demand.

Rimedo Labs xApp/rApp Portfolio

Rimedo Labs develops xApps and rApps for RAN Intelligent Controllers. This material presents the details on the current portfolio. The set of algorithms currently includes: Traffic Steering xApp, QoS-based Resource Allocator xApp, Beam Mobility Management xApp, Frequency Band Selector rApp, Beamforming Optimizer rApp, Energy Saving rApps and Traffic Management rApp.

Open Source Traffic Steering xApp for µONOS RIC

Traffic Steering (TS) xApp for µONOS RIC – associates the users with the eNB/gNB taking into account user radio conditions, cell types, and service type/QoS profile. It can be controlled by policies from non-RT RIC (A1 interface).

Key features:
* Suitable for heterogeneous scenarios
* Per-user association decision taking into account radio conditions (e.g. RSRP), service type (e.g. 5QI), cell type
* Optimizes user-throughput and cell-outage

Demonstration of TS xApp integrated with ONF SD-RAN

Rimedo Labs has integrated an xApp into the SD-RAN RIC from ONF to demonstrate the operation of the A1 interface as defined by the O-RAN Alliance. This is the first xApp integrated with the ONF’s SD-RAN platform utilizing the A1 interface for policy control. This short video demonstrates the operation of the xApp running on SD-RAN’s micrONOS RIC under the control of policies coming from A1 interface.

O-RAN Resources

Below we gathered the technical content, we produce on a daily basis, all related to Open RAN topic, so that you have
a single point of reference for our work.
You can find whitepapers, posters, blog articles, videos and slide-decks.

O-RAN Materials

Here you can find our recent downloadable items, like research paper, whitepaper and A3 poster. You can also find out about our O-RAN System Training and download the agenda.
Note: To download the items you’ll be transferred to a separate landing page.

O-RAN Specifications Map Poster

The „O-RAN Specifications Map” poster serves as a one-page reference collecting all the publicly available O-RAN ALLIANCE specifications to date.
The poster covers technical specifications and technical reports from: WG1 to WG11 and TIFG.

The O-RAN Whitepaper 2024: Traffic Steering in O-RAN

In the current mobile networks, traffic management is considered one of the key features to handle non-uniform user data efficiently. To realize this, the traffic steering function is employed, allocating users’ traffic flows to network nodes. This whitepaper provides an overview of the traffic steering topic in 5G mobile networks and how it fits into the O-RAN area. This is followed up by example implementations of the Traffic Steering xApp and its utilization for various use cases working in tandems with the corresponding rApps for energy saving and V2X scenarios.

The O-RAN Whitepaper 2023: Security

Recently, security has been pointed out as one of the critical aspects moving forward within the O-RAN domain. In this whitepaper, you will find an overview of security topics in O-RAN, specifically in 5G/6G mobile radio networks. We also consider artificial intelligence embedded in the network edge as a great tool to support security. We present some xApps applied to detect and mitigate example attacks. Conclusions and a discussion on the directions of future developments follow this.

The O-RAN Whitepaper 2023: Energy Efficiency

Recently, energy efficiency has been pointed out as one of the key requirements moving forward within the RAN domain. It has been defined as end-to-end involving all domains within the O-RAN system. The overall objective for O-RAN is to become more energy efficient than the regular RAN gradually. This whitepaper provides an overview of the energy efficiency topic in 5G mobile networks and how it fits into the O-RAN area, all followed up by example algorithms utilizing ML schemes and their realization in the form of rApps based on O-RAN use cases.

Towards autonomous open radio access networks

In this paper we give an overview of an open disaggregated network architecture based on an O-RAN, including the current work from standards bodies and industry bodies in this area. Based on this architecture, a framework for the automation of xApp development and deployment is proposed. This is then aligned with the key concepts described in ITU-T in terms of the evolution, experimentation, and adaptation of controllers. The various steps in such an aligned workflow, including design, validation, and deployment of xApps, are discussed, and use case examples are provided to illustrate further our position regarding the mechanisms needed to achieve automation.

The O-RAN Whitepaper 2022

RAN Intelligent Controller is one of the key elements in the O-RAN architecture, creating a platform for which the software companies could provide per-use case AI-powered algorithms to make way for, among others, radio resources usage or procedure optimizations. This whitepaper provides an overview of the RIC, discusses its functional split into Non-Real-Time and Near-Real-Time entities

Toward Modular and Flexible Open RAN Implementations in 6G Networks

This paper overviews the idea of open radio access networks and presents ongoing O-RAN Alliance standardization activities in this context. The whole analysis is supported by a study of the traffic steering use case implemented in a modular way, following the open networking approach.

The O-RAN Whitepaper 2021

This whitepaper provides an overview of Open RAN in general, and O-RAN specifically.
The O-RAN concept, relevant standardization, and ecosystem players are introduced. The architecture as defined by the O-RAN Alliance is described. Near-Real-Time RIC along with the idea of xApps is discussed. The use cases for O-RAN are overviewed with a particular focus on Traffic Steering.

O-RAN Architecture Poster

This poster summarizes O-RAN architecture, use cases, O-RAN Alliance specifications, key organizations involved in the Open RAN development and abbreviation list.

O-RAN System Training

The course covers joint design of technology and ecosystem aspects in Open RAN. The technology enablers include open networking, virtualization, HW/SW disaggregation, network intelligence. The course discusses Open RAN concept, architecture, use cases, functions and interfaces. The central point for the standardization of Open RAN is the O-RAN Alliance, but relation to other entities, like TIP, and 3GPP is also emphasized.

O-RAN Articles

In this section, we gather all our blog posts related to Open RAN and O-RAN. Notes: To expand, click „load-more”.
If you are interested in all our blog entries, also on other topics, like 5G, 6G, and #AllThingsWireless, visit the main page of our blog.

O-RAN Videos​

In this section, we gathered the videos from webinars and events, in which we participated related to the Open RAN / O-RAN topic. Note: to watch other videos on complementary topics, visit our youtube channel.

O-RAN Architecture and RIC

In this webinar, we cover the following topics:
✔︎ O-RAN architecture and deployment options
✔︎ RAN Intelligent Controller (RIC)
✔︎ Near-RT RIC and E2
✔︎ Non-RT RIC and A1

5G, Private Networks, and Open RAN

In this webinar, we will cover the following topics:
✔︎ Mobile wireless systems evolution
✔︎ 5G overview & 5G complexity
✔︎ Private mobile networks
✔︎ From RAN to O-RAN transition

O-RAN Architecture and Use Cases

In this webinar, we cover the following topics:
✔︎ O-RAN Architecture
✔︎ RAN Intelligent Controller (RIC)
✔︎ O-RAN Use Cases
✔︎ Traffic Steering Use Case

O-RAN Traffic Steering xApp Implementation 

In this webinar, we cover the following topics:
✔︎ O-RAN Architecture
✔︎ RAN Intelligent Controller (RIC)
✔︎ O-RAN Use Cases
✔︎ Traffic Steering Use Case

O-RAN Slide-decks

Here you can find slide-decks for presentations related to O-RAN. Some of them come from our public speeches or webinars, while others are collection of material we wanted to share with you. Note: To download the items you’ll be transferred to a separate landing page.

O-RAN Traffic Steering xApp Implementation

This slide-deck covers the following topics: Review of the O-RAN and ONF’s SD-RAN architecture, O-RAN use cases analysis, Traffic Steering use case – rationale and performance analysis, SD-RAN based implementation.

O-RAN Architecture and RAN Intelligent Controller

This slide deck comes from a webinar session and cover the following topics: O-RAN definitions and entities, O-RAN architecture and implementation options, RAN Intelligent Controller (RIC), Non-RT RIC and A1 interface, Near-RT RIC and E2 interface

5G, Private Networks and Open RAN

This slide deck comes from a webinar and cover the following topics: Mobile wireless systems evolution, 5G overview, and 5G complexity, An overview of Private Mobile Networks, Discussion on the transition from RAN to O-RAN.

O-RAN Architecture and Use Cases

This slide deck comes from a webinar session and cover the following topics: O-RAN Overview, O-RAN Alliance and other organizations, O-RAN Architecture, RAN Intelligent Controller (RIC), O-RAN Use Cases, Traffic Steering Use Case Simulations